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科学计量:全球科学研究中的性别差异
上传日期:2013-12-16       共有1236人次浏览
 
 
题名: Bibliometrics: Global gender disparities in science
作者: Vincent Larivière, Chaoqun Ni, Yves Gingras, Blaise Cronin& Cassidy R. Sugimoto
单位: Vincent Larivière is chaired assistant professor of transformations of scholarly communication at the University of Montreal, Canada.
出处: Nature,2013,(504):211–213
语种: 英文
文摘:

Despite many good intentions and initiatives, gender inequality is still rife in science. Although there are more female than male undergraduate and graduate students in many countries1, there are relatively few female full professors, and gender inequalities in hiring2, earnings3, funding4, satisfaction5 and patenting6 persist.

One focus of previous research has been the 'productivity puzzle'. Men publish more papers, on average, than women7, although the gap differs between fields and subfields. Women publish significantly fewer papers in areas in which research is expensive8, such as high-energy physics, possibly as a result of policies and procedures relating to funding allocations4. Women are less likely to participate in collaborations that lead to publication and are much less likely to be listed as either first or last author on a paper7. There is no consensus on the reasons for these gender differences in research output and collaboration — whether it is down to bias, childbearing and rearing9, or other variables.

It has been suggested that what women lack in research output they make up for in citations, particularly in fields with 'greater career risk'8 — that is, fields with long lags between doctoral education and securing a faculty position, such as ecology. But again, there is no consensus on the relative impact of women's work compared to men's.

The present state of quantitative knowledge of gender disparities in science has been shaped primarily by anecdotal reports and studies that are highly localized, monodisciplinary and dated. Furthermore, these studies take little account of the rise in collaborative research and other changes in scholarly practices. Effective policy cannot be built on such foundations.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/504211a

 

关键词: Authorship; Careers; Research management; Society

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